Non-Pharmacological Intervention Exposome Outcome Country
Collective COVID-19 related restrictions
(mobility; stay-at-home orders)
Food supply Increasing acute and chronic malnutrition in children 6-59 months; Aggravated nutritional status for children under 5; Increased risk of under 5 mortality Syria[@70369; @70370; @70373; @70375; @70378; @70379];
Projected increase in emergency food insecurity; Reduced quantity of available meals for children Afghanistan[@70355; @70357; @70359]; Lebanon[@70366]; Yemen[@70372]; Somalia[@70374]
Protection and Psychosocial support Increasing negative coping mechanisms and gender-based violence; Decreasing identification of children needing psychosocial assistance; Afghanistan[@70356; @70358; @70359; @70394; @70395; @70396]; Sudan[@70365; @70368]
Increasing child labor, forced prostitution, forced abortions and early/forced marriages Syria[@70384; @70386]
Socio-economic status Increasing poverty rates; Reduced financial capabilities; Increasing negative coping mechanisms; Increasing number of children in need of assistance Afghanistan[@70359];
Iraq[@70360; @70385]; Lebanon[@70366; @70376]; Occupied Palestinian Territories[@70362];
Syria[@70369; @70377; @70390; @70391; @70397];
Healthcare access Reduction in uptake of healthcare services; Reduction in child health and nutrition services; Decline in access to rehabilitation programs, physiotherapy and psychosocial counselling Afghanistan[@70367]; Occupied Palestinian Territories[@70363]; Syria[@70369]; Yemen[@70354]
Incomplete adherence to anti-retroviral HIV treatment Pakistan[@70361]
Lack of access to water and hygiene facilities Afghanistan[@70357; @70393];
Missed vaccination opportunities; Increase in the number and geographical spread of poliomyelitis; Continuous spread of Measles and vaccine-derived Poliomyelitis; Threat of water-borne and diarrheal diseases Afghanistan[@70349];
Pakistan[@70348]; Somalia[@70399]; Sudan[@70364]
Schools closure Education Challenged access to distance learning; Increasing risk of drop-out Afghanistan[@70356; @70359; @70367];
Iraq[@70360; @70381; @70383]; Lebanon[@70366]; Libya[@70380]; Occupied Palestinian Territories[@70362]; Syria[@70382]
Immunization activities Delayed or missed vaccinations Saudi Arabia[@70343];
Home confinement Protection and Psychosocial support Changes in sleeping; Psychological changes (Increased anxiety, irritability and aggressiveness; feelings of fear and loneliness); Increased self-perceived health and physical concerns; Conflict with parents Egypt[@70344; @70345]; Iran[@70338; @70353];
Saudi Arabia[@70347]; Pakistan[@70352]
Diet Changes in eating patterns (eating in late hours of the night, overeating or losing appetite; changes in consumed food) Egypt[@70344]
Healthcare access Decreased uptake of pediatric dental services; Effect on case management of children with underlying condition Egypt[@70351]; Saudi Arabia[@70342]; Pakistan[@70339]
Delayed vaccination by fear of contracting Sars-CoV-2 Saudi Arabia[@70341; @70342; @70350]; Syria[@70370]