Author, year of publication, country Outcome Outcome prevalence (%) Intravaginal practice & prevalence (%) Effect measure of association
Luo et. al, 2016
China
HIV-1 seropositivity 10 Douching: 84 Association between vaginal douching & HIV: aOR 2.29 [95% CI 1.01 – 5.23]
Only douching with toothpaste and medical disinfectant were associated with significant increases in HIV risk
Vandepitte et. al, 2011
Uganda
HIV seroprevalence 37 Intravaginal cleansing: 94
Intravaginal insertion: 56
Cleansing of the vagina using soap and HIV-infection: aOR 1.32 [95% CI 1.00 -1.73], P = 0.05
Cleansing inside the vagina in the last 3 months: aOR 1.18 [95% CI 0.66 – 2.10], P = 0.58
Inserting any substance inside the vagina in last 3 months: aOR 1.04 [95% CI 0.79 – 1.38], P = 0.77