Author Year Factors related to individual rationality Factors related to institutional constraints Study type
Joarder et al.[@26745] 2018 Uncertainty to stay with spouses Lack of basic amenities, infrastructure, housing, security and transportation, Relaxed monitoring by the health bureaucrats, unplanned career tracks, lack of proper systems or policies, absence of allowances, policy provision for career path development, principles for promotion and transfer, provision of post-graduation and in-service training to the medical doctors, policies and provisions are neither well defined nor well implemented, higher level bureaucrats and politicians created posts for doctors without accounting for required infrastructure and facilities Qualitative method
Darkwa et al.[@26739] 2015 Inadequate opportunities for private practice, concern for children’s education, anxiety about the unfamiliarity of rural life Poor living conditions in rural areas (e.g., poor housing facilities and unsafe drinking water), overwhelming workloads with poor safety; insufficient salary, lack of sufficient authority of the managers to take disciplinary measures for absenteeism, lack of fairness in promotion practices of the providers, unavailability or insufficient allowances, lack of national policy on rural retention, lack of opportunities for career development and skill enhancement, lesser opportunity of training, inadequate equipment and facilities in health centres Qualitative method
Rawal et al.[@26746] 2015 - Absence of financial incentives, problems in educational policy and regulatory policy, no specific policy to provide better living conditions/accommodation, Policies are not explicitly addressing rural retention issues, ineffective implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policy, current policies concerning career ladders are not specifically conducive to rural retention. Qualitative Method
Latif, Habib and Alam[@26747] 2013 Unwanted place of posting, inadequate job satisfaction, urbanized mindset, isolation from nearest, dearest & colleagues, sudden change of life style Poor working condition, inadequate infrastructure facilities, no carrier planning for the doctor yet adopted by the competent authority, less opportunity for post-graduation, residing environment, Qualitative Method
Al Mahdy H.[@26748] 2009 Lesser scope of private practice, family life suffers Lower salary structure, no extra incentives, inadequate accommodation and transportation facilities Qualitative Method
Hossain et al.[@26749] 2007 Less opportunity of private practices, detached from the family, spouses’ jobs are hampered Lack of physical facilities, equipment and resources, over-burdened with patients, no effective formal mechanisms for patient feedback or doctor accountability, fear for personal security, poor material incentive, unorganized career structure Qualitative method
World Bank[@26750] 2007 Private practice, personal business, irresponsibility and negligence of duty, not working in a preferred workplace Administrative weakness Mixed method