Variables Odd Ratio 95% Confidence Interval
Living arrangement
- Older adult living with family
- Older adult living alone/with spouse or one other older adult (referent)

1.37
1.00

1.02-1.82
Age (years) 0.98 0.97-1.00
Gender (women vs men) 0.80 0.66-0.97
Educational attainment
- None/didn’t complete primary
- Completed primary
- Above primary level (referent)

1.68
1.11
1.00

1.27-2.20
0.72-1.70

Marital status (Married vs single) 1.15 0.88-1.50
Food-related asset scale* (mean) 0.62 0.52-0.75
Poverty (yes vs no) 2.04 1.58-2.64
Welfare (yes vs no) 1.85 1.44-2.38
Chronic disease (yes vs no) 1.15 1.13-2.02
Acute disease (yes vs no) 1.50 1.19-1.89
Receiving remittance from family or aid other than UNRWA (yes vs no) 0.81 0.63-1.04