Epidemiologic parameter Containment interventions Responsibility R0 parameter affected*
Undocumented transmission (α)
  • Mass testing to identify new clusters followed by:
    • Government-initiated contact tracing, and isolation of cases and quarantine of contacts
    • Individual-initiated “contact tracing”, and self-isolation of cases and self-quarantine of contacts
  • Targeted surveillance testing of diverse social networks to potentially identify clusters of infection
Government-facilitated, with mass individual participation Duration of infectiousness (D)
Duration of asymptomatic transmission (β)
  • Contact tracing followed by testing then isolation of cases and quarantine of contacts
Government, with strong individual and collective commitment Duration of infectiousness (D)
Time from onset of symptoms until isolation (γ)
  • Public awareness about symptoms and course of action at onset of symptoms
  • Immediate self-imposed isolation
Individual, with government-initiated awareness Duration of infectiousness (D)
Frequency of social contacts (δ)
  • Social distancing through:
    • Limiting circle of social contacts
    • Reducing number of social contacts per day
    • Avoidance of mass gatherings and crowded settings
Individual and collective, with facilitation from government action Contact rate (c)
Distance between individuals in a social contact (μ)
  • Physical distancing through keeping a minimum of 1-2 meters distance between individuals in every contact
Individual and collective Transmission probability per contact (p)
Frequency of potentially infectious exposures (θ)
  • Prevention of respiratory droplet transmission (covering sneezes/coughs)
  • Hand and face washing/stopping face touching
Individual and collective Contact rate (c) and transmission probability per contact (p)