Year of publication/
Study design Study population/
sample size
2015/Ethiopia[@16903] Cross-sectional study 250/Women Basic literacy, completion of only elementary school, completion of only high school, being married, engaging in sex work for 1-4 years and drug use
2012/ Nigeria[@16913] Cross-sectional 924/women Previous experience of psychological abuse, sexual abuse, having attitudes supportive of IPV, partner's daily alcohol consumption, and previous engagement in a physical fight
2011/Nigeria[@16912] Cross-sectional 300/female university students Religious affiliation, ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty affiliation
2018/Ghana[@16911] Cross-sectional 2000/women Depression, disability, witnessing abuse of mother, experience of childhood sexual abuse, having had multiple sexual partners in past year, control by male partner, male partner alcohol use in past year and male partner infidelity
2017/Kenya[@16910] Cross-sectional 238/antenatal women Alcohol intake by partner and partner's level of education, age of partner and age of pregnant women
2017/Kenya[@16909] Cross-sectional 8003(582 girls and 7421 women), Being married or cohabiting, low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months
2018/Uganda[@16929] Community-based cross-sectional study 379 women Reporting recent client violence, doing what their partner wanted, and forced sexual debut, recent police arrest and/or incarceration
2017/Rwanda[@16924] Cross-sectional 921 women Low socioeconomic status, young age, living in urban areas and poor social support
2016/South Africa[@16925] Cross-sectional 1817 Female Sex Workers Inconsistent condom use with clients being offered more money for condomless sex, having had a condom slip or break and difficulty suggesting condoms with non-paying partners
2016/Ethiopia[@16926] Cross-sectional married pregnant women/2021 Having ever lived with partner's family (Protective). Dowry payment (Protective)
2013/South Africa[@16923] Cross-sectional 1,388 women Drinking and sexual risk behaviors
2010/Ethiopia[@16902] Cross-sectional 1,994 women Being literate and married to an illiterate
2005/Tanzania[@16920] Cross-sectional 1,444 women Difficulty conceiving or woman had borne five or more children; if her husband or partner had other partners or contributes little to expenses for her and her children, having not more than a primary education.
2004/South Africa[@16901] Cross-sectional 1,395 women Child sexual assault, forced first intercourse
2011/Botswana, Swaziland[@16922] Cross-sectional 2074 adults Forced sex victimization, heavy drinking
2011/Nigeria[@16921] Cross-sectional 3000 men and women Married female respondents were more likely to experience physical violence than single respondents
2013/Ethiopia[@16907] Cross-sectional 647 people Having HIV
2014/Malawi[@16904] Cross-sectional 466 young couples Male dominance, education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women
2015/Ethiopia[@16919] Cross-sectional using Demographic and Health Surveys of 2005 and 2010 4338 couples Experiencing emotional, beating husband/partner unprovoked, witnessing IPV against mother, husband/partner consumption of alcohol, and polygynous marriage. Having a husband/partner with secondary education was protective., husband/partner has sex with non-marital partners, bottom wealth quintile, polygynous marriage, having a son or only daughters versus no children, and having a husband/partner employed with in-kind versus cash compensation
2010/Tanzania[@16928] Cross-sectional 951 men Men who reported more lifetime sexual partners, experienced physical violence as a child at home, Education
2018/Ghana[@16927] Baseline survey from a cluster randomized trial 2126/men 18yrs and above Witnessing abuse of mother and neglect, having multiple partners, substance use and gender inequitable attitudes