Study Study type Country
(income status)
ARFM definition Outcome(s)* Study population
De Muylder (1988)[@15443] Cohort of high risk pregnancies Zimbabwe (LIC) DFMC chart, abnormal count defined as fewer than ten between 6am and 6pm SB, Apgar, CS 200 pregnancies of which 36 had an abnormal DFMC count (19 were excluded as doubtful); 8 stillbirths (7 with ARFM) and 25 low Apgar scores (14 with ARFM)
Lema, Rogo & Mwalali (1988)[@15439] Cohort of pregnant women who were given DFMC charts Kenya
DFMC chart, abnormal count defined as fewer than ten between 9am and 9pm SB, Apgar, PTD, BW <2500g 110 pregnancies, 27 with ARFM; 6 stillbirths (5 with ARFM) and 22 low Apgar scores (9 with ARFM)
Manandhar, Giri & Rana (2013)[@15444] Cohort of women with ARFM Nepal (LIC) Maternal perception SB, Apgar, CS, NNU 55 pregnancies with ARFM; 5 stillbirths and 1 low Apgar score
Nahar, Rahman & Nasreen (2013)[@15440] Case control study of 464 live births and 231 stillbirths Bangladesh (LMIC) Maternal perception SB, PTD 64 pregnancies with ARFM, 24 of these had stillbirths.
Oladapo, Adekanle & Durojaiye (2007)[@15441] Case control study of 184 live births and 46 fetal deaths Nigeria (LMIC) Maternal perception SB 18 pregnancies with ARFM, six of these pregnancies resulted in stillbirth.
Olagbuji et al (2011)[@15446] Case control; 107 women who had induction of pregnancy for RFM and 107 who were induced for prolonged pregnancy (no RFM) Nigeria (LMIC) Maternal perception Apgar, BW<2500g, CS, NNU 107 women were induced with ARFM as an indication, 10 of these had a low Apgar score.
Singh & Sidhu (2008)[@15442] Case control; 250 women who were given DFMC charts and 250 who were not. India (LMIC) Maternal perception in the control group, DFMC chart in the study group SB 8 of 250 pregnancies without DFMC charts had ARFM; 5 of these ended in stillbirth. There were no stillbirths in women without ARFM.