Management level Intervention strategies Estimated intervention costs Expected outcomes
I. Eliminate risk Centralize slaughterhouses and market refrigerated meat only Very high costs for government and industry Few to zero cases
Maintain cold-chain from processing center to wholesale market Considerable short-term impact on poultry farming industry Protect all populations
Close live poultry markets in the cities and rural areas Requires consumers to change behavior
Strengthen live poultry wholesale markets management Suitable as a long-term goal
Strengthen poultry farms management
II. Control risk Recondition poultry markets; strengthen poultry market management for different poultry types and areas; have a designated slaughterhouse High costs to government and industry Sporadic cases in limited areas
Zero live poultry in markets overnight; disinfect cages Suitable as a as a short or intermediate goal with gradual implementation Eliminate the risk of exposure to the pathogen in urban populations
Strict implementation of 1-1-1-0 Policy at the live poultry market; reinforce the routine market closed day policy
Strengthen the management of the wholesale markets for the three types of poultry; disinfect transportation vehicles
Close local markets that have potential for viral infections or human cases; extend market closure time, disinfect facilities immediately; consider temporally closures of all regional live poultry markets
III. Mitigate risk Recondition live poultry markets; guarantee no overlapping areas for slaughter and market Moderate costs to government and industry Sporadic cases in multiple areas
Close local markets that have potential for viral infections or human cases; extend market closure time, disinfect facilities immediately; consider temporally closures of all regional live poultry markets Suitable for immediate implementation as a short-term goal Reduce the risk of contracting the disease among rural populations
IV. Contain risk Strengthen health education campaigns and activities Efforts focus on reduce exposure by raising public awareness and disease prevention knowledge Sporadic cases reported constantly in multiple locations
Strengthen infectious disease surveillance systems Viral contamination is widespread at markets with year-round or multi-year risks for new cases
Improve influenza diagnosis and treatment