Non-facility birth (n=1252) Facility birth (n=739) P-value
Mother’s age, years, mean (SD) 27.70 (7.20) 26.84 (6.42) 0.007
Mother married 915 (73.08%) 510 (69.01%) 0.052
Mother's education: <0.001
- None 324 (25.88%) 65 (8.80%)
- Primary 680 (54.31%) 251 (33.96%)
- Secondary 247 (19.73%) 366 (49.53%)
- Higher 1 (0.08%) 57 (7.71%)
Household wealth, index, mean (SD) -5.14 (6.49) 3.51 (9.61) <0.001
Socioeconomic status (PCA), mean (SD) -0.17 (0.93) 1.08 (1.24) <0.001
Birth Order, mean (SD) 3.39 (2.38) 2.23 (1.74) <0.001
Number of antenatal visits, mean (SD) 3.93 (2.72) 5.89 (2.61) <0.001
Rural 1014 (80.99%) 354 (47.90%) <0.001
Aridity, index, mean (SD) 9925.67 (2330.42) 8831.80 (2320.69) <0.001
Built population, index, mean (SD) 0.10 (0.24) 0.24 (0.32) <0.001
Night lights, radiance values, mean (SD) 1.06 (2.99) 2.61 (4.31) <0.001
Slope, degrees, mean (SD) 4.55 (2.41) 3.61 (2.54) <0.001
Travel times, minutes, mean (SD) 151.09 (77.63) 100.75 (76.76) <0.001
Delivery readiness estimate, mean (SD) 23.39 (7.54) 25.52 (9.54) <0.001